Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, represents a medical condition that is characterized by the inability of the human body to process all the intake of the glucose. The reason this is happening is due to the lack of the insulin hormone in the body, however it may also happen due to the unbalanced activity of the existing amount of insulin. The excess sugar can be found in the blood, as well as in the urine, thus tests can be done in both ways to determine the levels of the glucose and if the individual suffers from it or not.
In the modern world, diabetes is affecting more and more people around the world and it has become one of the fastest growing diseases that are characterized by its long-term duration and it is widely spread diseases in many countries. There are several types of diabetes: . The difference between these two is in the fact that
Usually, people who suffer from obesity or those overweight are mostly at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. There is another type of diabetes called the gestational diabetes which is mainly met in pregnant women who did not have it before getting pregnant but it developed due to the increase in the blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The percentage of affected pregnant women is rather small, however after birth the mother may develop Type 2 diabetes due to the high level of sugar in the blood.
The blood sugar levels are regulated by the hormones in the human body in a very simple way. After the intake of food it is usually broken down into components in the stomach during the digestion process. The sugar and carbohydrates are then broken down to glucose that the body uses to supply the energy resources. One of the organs that also make glucose is the liver. The hormone that is responsible for regulating the blood sugar levels in the body is the insulin that is produced by pancreas. When the levels of the glucose are high, the insulin hormone is stimulating the cells to absorb the glucose in the blood and use it for the energy supply. Insulin is also stimulating the liver to absorb the excess sugar.
This way the insulin levels are high after meals when the glucose levels are high as well. As soon as the glucose levels are low, the insulin hormone levels are lowered too. There is another type of hormone called glucagon that works as a stimulator for the liver to release glucose when the body needs it. When something goes wrong with the blood sugar levels, people may start to have symptoms. Among the most common symptoms of diabetes are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria that involve an increased thirst, hunger and frequency to urinate. Tiring feelings are also a part of the symptoms of diabetes, as well as wright loss and decrease in the muscle mass. People can develop Type 1 diabetes very quickly, sometimes during several weeks of days, while the Type 2 diabetes is developed during a longer period of time and gradually.
Diabetes is mostly due to the lack or not enough insulin that is able to regulate the blood glucose in the human body. An excess of the blood sugar levels leads to damages in the blood vessels that involve such complications like heart disease, nerve damage, eye damage that can lead to blindness, impotence, stroke, kidney damage, etc. people with diabetes are also more vulnerable to infections and gangrene, especially on the lower limbs. In certain cases that are met in people with mostly severe instances of diabetes, this may lead to amputation.
A way of preventing any type of complications due to diabetes is to keep in control the blood sugar levels and make regular tests to make sure that any deviation is monitored by the specialist and the appropriate treatment is prescribed. The treatment for such cases is usually consisting of a special diet and exercising that go with specific medication to regulate the high blood sugar levels. People who suffer from Type 1 diabetes and those who suffer from a severe instance of Type 2 diabetes need constant injections of insulin, usually once per day, to control the absorption of the glucose and regulate its levels.